The Ocean-Ringed Earth: A Review of “Aazhi Soozh Ulagu” – N Kalyan Raman

Excerpts from: Far Reaches Of The Ocean: A Review of “Aazhi Soozh Ulagu” by Joe D’Cruz

The Book Review, December 2006, Volume XXX, Number 12, Page 6. The Book Review Literary Trust, New Delhi. 

Reveiwed by: N Kalyan Raman

Joe D'Cruz
Joe D’Cruz

Aazhi Soozh Ulagu’, the title of the novel under review, is an exquisite phrase from Kamban‘s Ramayanam (circa 12 th century CE), which occurs in Kaikeyi‘s exhortation to Lord Ram before he is sent away into exile for fourteen years. ‘All of this ocean-ringed earth is Bharathan‘s to rule’, declares Kaikeyi, while Ram must travel into the jungle to undertake ‘intolerably arduous’ penance, live austerely and bathe in the waters off hallowed pilgrimage centres, before returning home in two times seven years. In a contemporary reworking of this metaphor, playing on the multifarious meanings of ‘Ulagu’, the title of this debut novel by Joe D‘Cruz, first published in 2004, refers to the Ocean-Ringed World of a community of fishermen in a coastal village south of Tuticorin in southern Tamilnadu. The vastness of the ocean, which provides daily sustenance and brings death in unpredictable, uncertain ways, is the backdrop of the narrative in which awesome and tragic destinies of men, women and children are played out on the sands, in the briny air and on the unplumb’d, salt ocean over five decades—from 1933 to 1985.

In a somber note prefacing the novel, the author recalls being the altar boy at a funeral service in the local parish church for a fisherman whose life was lost at sea. “A black cloth draped over the coffin placed centrally on a table inside the church had these words printed on it: Today, it‘s my turn; tomorrow, it‘ll be yours”. “I began to observe the nature of Death”, the author writes, “with fear, and eagerness”. “When the path through which life commenced was the same for all living creatures – equal in birth – how various were the ways in which Death came to us! What is this great force of Death, which shall never be conquered, trying to teach us?”…”Every question that emerges from my experience of life invariably ends up as a very simple query: What is life worth in the face of Death?”. D‘Cruz wrote his debut novel as a means to explore this question.

Aazhi Soozh Ulagu - Joe D'Cruz

On July 17, 1985, three fishermen belonging to three different generations – Godhra Pillai, Susai and Siluvai from Aamandhurai village – are stranded mid-ocean while on a routine fishing expedition. Slowly, as the days and nights pass, it becomes more and more certain that they will all die. The story of their struggle – marked by tenacity, generosity, resourcefulness, love of the ocean with its awesome variety, splendour and spectacle, and terminal heroism – is told in sections interleaved with the larger story of the community itself, its cast of characters spanning all generations and ages, its gods and demons, its ecology of local and village feuds, caste prejudice and enterprise, love and dreams of a better life, and death—especially Death that touches them randomly, but with a sure hand. In the closing section of the novel, Siluvai, the youngest of the marooned, an orphan in his early twenties, survives the ordeal, rescued by a passenger ship off the coast of Tuticorin.

N Kalyan Raman

There are no individual heroes or even protagonists in Aazhi Soozh Ulagu. Truly, it is the narrative of a community‘s life told refracted through the lives of its people, the near and far events of history, and of course, through the great unconquerable force that determines so much of how they live and die. For a first-time author, Joe D‘Cruz has an impressive mastery of the novelist‘s craft, a sparkling style and deep reserves of empathy for his characters. Being of the community, he brings us awesome descriptions of the sights, sounds, creatures and even moods from the far reaches of the ocean with confident knowledge and exceptional powers of description. His evocation of the forlorn air and poverty of a coastal village, of the follies and wisdom of its people, is simply brilliant. D‘Cruz captures every nuance – of land, air, water, god and the Devil – and it is hard to think of a recent novel in which so many different voices and people in various stages and walks of life are rendered with such perfection of detail. His people live in a world where their religious practices segue seamlessly into that of the Hindu world surrounding them; where their adopted religion does not free them from the divisive brutality of caste prejudice; where the Church alternately nurtures and exploits, offering the one true dwelling for their faith; and where mobility into the larger world – to Rameshwaram, Kanyakumari, Colombo, and around the world as merchant sailors – wreaks several kinds of havoc with their lives, one way or another. For all the awareness of Death which sings throughout the novel like a melancholy dirge, there is a poignancy and controlled pathos to the narrative, along with a steadfast dignity. Vannanilavan‘s classic novel of the Seventies, Kadalpuraththil (translated as: In a town by the sea), sharing a similar setting, was imbued with the same poignancy; but turning on romantic love, it now seems much narrower in scope and perhaps less authentic, even, than Aazhi Soozh Ulagu.


[…] Expansion of educational opportunities in recent decades has moved large sections of people in India into the world, literally, of letters. For the very first time, whole communities, hitherto marginalized, now have the means to put together their own narratives, create literary expressions of their own culture and politics; and in brief, to declare their own sense of the universe. This is perhaps a possibility unique to Indian language literatures, with some linguistic communities racing ahead of others in this respect. The Fernando community of Tuticorin – whose most famous son was JB Chandrababu, a genius figure of Tamil cinema of the Fifties and Sixties – can now find a place in the Tamil imagination; so can ‘Siluvairaj’, a scholarly Dalit, from a village in drought-prone Ramanathapuram district. For a society with a long and shamefully persistent history of stratification and abuse, such developments can only be emancipatory. After all, it was more than eighty years since the first Tamil novel that a narrative of the social world of Muslims – the first ‘Muslim’ novel, if you will – saw the light of day (Oru KadalOra Gramathin Kathai, by Thoppil Mohammed Meeran) although Muslims have been living in the region for centuries.

These novels – and communities – also lay claim to the Tamil language – among the most famously diglossic languages in the world – with all its history and literary legacy. D‘Cruz‘s novel is dotted with celebratory references to fishermen‘s communities (Bharathavar) in Sangam poetry as epigraph and chapter headings. In a sense, with Aazhi Soozh Ulagu restores to the author‘s community what was always theirs and will be forever. The novel also documents and makes accessible for the first time the age-old nautical terminology of sea-faring Tamil communities; it restores to us the Tamil names of different species of fish found in our coastal waters, while describing for us how they look and move and live in the ocean.



Excerpted From:  Far Reaches Of The Ocean: A Review of “Aazhi Soozh Ulagu”; N Kalyan Raman; The Book Review, December 2006, Volume XXX, Number 12, Page 6. The Book Review Literary Trust, New Delhi

‘Aazhi Soozh Ulagu’ (The Ocean-Ringed Earth)
By Joe D‘Cruz
First published November 2004
67, Peters Road
Chennai 600014
ISBN 81-87641-51-7

Joe D’Cruz won the Sahitya Academy award in 2013 for Tamil for his novel Korkai.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s